Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Physics of Car Racing Essay - 1508 Words

This paper is a look at the physics behind car racing. We look look at how we can use physics to select tires, how physics can help predict how much traction we will have, how physics helps modern cars get there extreme speed, how physics lets us predict the power of an engine, and how physics can even help the driver find the quickest way around the track. Tires are the most important part of race or any car for that mater. (Physics of Racing) After all they are the only thing that is contact with the ground! Tires work by having a high coefficient of friction. Some slicks have a friction coefficient grater then 1! (Physics of Racing) Typical normal street tires have coefficient of about .5 to .6 . In physics we learned that†¦show more content†¦If we are going to keep the tires from sliding, the sum of the acceleration and turning vectors magnitude cant be larger then the max force of our tires. This max force of traction forms a circle, with the radius forming a circle. (Chassis Engineering) You can see why if your on the brakes you have less traction for turning. We know this from real life too, since if you have a really tight turn in a car, if you slam your breaks your going to slide off at a tangent to the curve. Aerodynamics have really changed modern racing. Most high speed cars use a large wing like the McLaren to make the body of the car push down harder on the tires. This effectively increases the normal force on the tire to increases the frictional force of the tires. (Physics of Racing) Of course this large wing creates drag, so most wings have a low angle of attack. (Auto Math) Some Formual 3000, F1, Indy, and GTP cars use large scoops on the side that are shaped like an hour glass, with a small hole under the body. This creates a low pressure system under the car and sucks the car to the road. There is an old racing storie that before Indy street races workers have to go around and spot weld the man hole covers so they are not sucked off the ground during the race. The louvers on the McLaren help control this low pressure system under the car, and cool the engine. The power of the engine and the way the car handles really is what sets race carsShow MoreRelatedReport On The Car Engines1498 Words   |  6 PagesCar Engines Jonah Hornum Wilde Lake High School Jonah Hornum Torque Torque of a car is very important to its performance. Torque is the measure of how much force is acting on an object and how that causes the object to rotate. (What is torque). Rotating the wheels of a car is torque and that helps the car get up to speed faster. Many performance cars have very fast 0-60 mph speeds, like the corvette, challenger and exotic cars like the Porsche, Bentley, Ashton Martin etcRead More Physics of a Car Essay1527 Words   |  7 PagesPhysics of a Car The average driver doesn’t think about what keeps their car moving or what keeps them on the road, but that’s because they don’t have to. The average driver doesn’t have to worry about having enough downforce to keep them on the road or if they will reach the adhesive limit of their car’s tires around a turn. These are the things are the car designers, professional drivers, racing pit crews, serious sports car owners, and physicist think about. Physics are an important partRead MoreHistory of Ferrari1309 Words   |  6 PagesEnzo Ferrari was born in Modena Italy on February 18 1898. He came from a well to do family that owned a metal foundry making railroad parts, they were the first in his town to own a car. When WWI came Enzos father and brother (Dino) were drafted into the Italian army, whom both died from influenza in 1916. Enzo was forced to leave school to run the foundry, when the business collapsed he started work as a metalworker at the Mo dena Fire Brigade workshop in order to support his widowed mother. EnzoRead More sequential gearboxes Essay1646 Words   |  7 Pagessequential gearbox has been applied mostly in ATV’s, motorcycles, and the automobile racing industry. Recently this technology has begun to reach passenger cars. There are three main points of discussion; the workings of a manual transmission, how a sequential gearbox works and the advantages of them, and the applications of it today. The sequential gearbox is extremely revolutionary and is only used in high-end passenger cars, but maybe one day it will be a luxury the majority of the population will beRead MorePersonal Statement on Mechanical Engineer559 Words   |  2 Pagesare motivated by money, others by recognition and then there are those of us who are motivated purely by our curiosity. Like most children of an early age, I always asked why? often questioning the purpose of any modifications my dad made to his cars. The older I got, the more advanced my questions became and eventually he ran out of answers, which has since encouraged me to find them for myself. I think that the addition of curiosity to sound technical skills is what distinguishes the great engineersRead MoreNeed for Speed6930 Words   |  28 Pagessimulation of car handling and physics without arcade elements (the other being Porsche Unleashed). Electronic Arts teamed up with automotive magazine Road Track to match vehicle behaviour, including the mimicking of the sounds made by the vehicles gear control levers. The game also contained precise vehicle data with spoken commentary, several magazine style images of each car interior and exterior and even short video-clips highlighting the vehicles set to music. Most cars and tracks areRead More The Physics of Turbo Chargers Essay1381 Words   |  6 PagesDo you want your car to pick up speed faster? How about adding a turbo booster on that engine under your automobiles hood. A turbo charger is a very efficient way to gain power. To fully understand the function of this component, lets look at the physics behind it. The Ideal Gas model has much to do in turbo chargers. I will explain the theory and components like the compressor, turbine, intercooler, wastegate, and the BOV. Matter is assumed to be composed of an enormous number of very tiny particlesRead MoreCar Accidents and Physics2070 Words   |  9 PagesAmericans are hurt or killed in car accidents. Many factors can play into an accident. Road condition, mechanical failure, driver error, or simply an act of God? Despite the countless reasons for a car accident, one factor is always present, no matter what the case: physics. Every accident that has ever occurred has involved physics. Using references found in the class text, in science journals, and on the Internet, I will prove this to you. Take, for example, two cars traveling in opposite directionsRead MoreApplications of Physics For Different Industries Essays1950 Words   |  8 PagesINTRODUCTION Physics attempts to describe the fundamental nature of the universe and how it works, always striving for the simplest explanations common to the most diverse behaviour. For example, physics explains why rainbows have colours, what keeps a satellite in orbit, and what atoms and nuclei are made of. The goal of physics is to explain as many things as possible using as few laws as possible, revealing natures underlying simplicity and beauty. Physics has been applied in many industrialRead MorePhysics for Industries1918 Words   |  8 PagesINTRODUCTION Physics attempts to describe the fundamental nature of the universe and how it works, always striving for the simplest explanations common to the most diverse behaviour. For example, physics explains why rainbows have colours, what keeps a satellite in orbit, and what atoms and nuclei are made of. The goal of physics is to explain as many things as possible using as few laws as possible, revealing nature s underlying simplicity and beauty. Physics has been applied in many industrial

Bullying in the Work Environment Essay - 628 Words

The workforce is diminishing because of the economy. Factories have been moving out of Ohio limits causing major problems. As a result employers are forced to introduce LEAN onto the work floor. After all, work is work not a vacation in paradise. This is causing twice the work load on the employees, which is causing stress and pressure at the work station. The employers are allowing bullying as part of the normal work environment, because they feel it motivates the employee’s to do their best on their jobs. The perpetrators claims that they are the victim, not the one that does the bullying. Most bullying cases is related to poor management skills, and lack of self-confidence. Harassment is escalating into bullying among the employees,†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Bullying creates an emotional corrosive environment that makes doing work difficult† (Garner, S., Pamela, R. J.). â€Å"Workplace bullies create a tremendous liability for the employer by causing stre ss-related health and safety problems, driving good employees out of the organization† (Therein, E, 2000). The problem arises as a child on the playground at school with poor parenting skills. Parents tend to ignore it and when all grown up as an adult they tend to lead the same path of bullying. â€Å"Research shows about a third of all kids have been perpetrators or victims of bullying, and that child bullies often grow up to be violent adults, said Clarke. Bully victims, who have been bullied themselves (especially by parents)† (Adams, S.). According to Adams the research showed seven kinds of victims, which are as follows: 1. Victims who are simply in the wrong place at the wrong time. 2. Those who intentionally provoke antagonism by teasing and taunting. 3. Those who take on the role of a victim to gain acceptance. 4. People with low self-esteem or who have trouble making friends. 5. Victims chosen because of a disability. 6. Bullies who have been bullied themselves (especially by parents). 7. Victims that try to get attention or get someone in trouble by falsification of bullying. It started with a fellow worker that had to have control in all situations, rather it being personal or work related. We startedShow MoreRelatedThe Ignored Lesson Of Anne Frank1449 Words   |  6 PagesTo the public eye, hospitals and nurses are there for them and their work environment seems like one that would promote growth in the work place, but the public doesn’t see what happens behind the curtain at these hospitals. Bullying can be in every company, but the public never really sees it happening just the employees that work there. The definition of bullying according to Terri Townsend, who wrote â€Å"Break the bullying cycle†, states that â€Å"[b]ullying is defined as repeated, offensive, abusiveRead MoreBullying At Work Is A Mental Or Physical Menace974 Words   |  4 PagesINTRODUCTION Bullying at work is a mental or physical menace caused by a man or group of individuals at work environment (g). It can happen in any sort of work environment and the individual or gathering need not be supervisors or managers, it can originate from collaborators as well. At work, bullying is viewed as rehashed behavior, where it creates a risk to one’s well-being and security. It develops when one or a few people industriously over a time-frame see themselves to be forced to bear contraryRead MoreWorkplace Bullying Essay examples910 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Workplace bullying is a widespread issue in which people need to be educated on in order to put an end to it. Its causes are complex and multi-faceted and yet preventable. Workplace bullying puts unnecessary strain on the employees It is the employer and organizations responsibility to provide a bully free environment for their employees. Employees should have the right to feel safe in their work environment and be free from workplace bullying. Employers need to be held accountableRead MoreBullying At The Nursing Profession845 Words   |  4 Pages Bullying in the Nursing Profession Carli Jessop Flathead Valley Community College Bullying is a term that many associate with children and while this has been recognized as a serious issue in schools across the country, such conduct unfortunately does not stop there. It has been said that nurses eat their young and while this may sound particularly extreme, bullying as well as lateral and vertical violence in the nursing profession has been an ongoing and increasingly prevalent issueRead MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On The Health Care Industry1437 Words   |  6 PagesLiterature Review Bullying is a prevalent problem that has existed in the health care industry for a long time, but people did not want to talk about it and it was kept as an ugly secret. When the occurrence of misbehavior increased over time, health care providers started breaking the silence. The evidence of bullying has shown the effect on patient outcomes as well as the victims. According to studies, nurses particularly younger age females are more susceptible to bullying than any other healthRead MoreEssay on Workplace Bullying1084 Words   |  5 Pages Workplace Bullying Angela Barbato BUS 600 Management Professor Frank Bucaria February 8, 2014 Workplace bulling is abusive behavior that creates an intimidating and uncomfortable work environment that affects another person or persons safety or well-being (Qualia Soup, 2014). The article Workplace Bullying: Costly and Preventable by Wiedmer, T.L. (2011) discusses work place bullying and its effects on productivity and the work environment. Workplace bullingRead MoreThe Effects Of Workplace Bullying On Workplace Essay907 Words   |  4 Pagesmany reasons workplace bullying is costly and preventable. Workplace bullying can occur among all people and different venues. In school and business, practicing bullying it is unlikely to conducive positive performance and it is costly and preventable. The key is creating a positive work environment where bullying is not rewarded. Senior management and executives should take control of stopping workplace bullying and realizing it is possible for employee and employer to work together to create policyRead MoreWorkplace Bullying And Effective And Ineffective Management Strategies1683 Words   |  7 Pagesreported that they have been affected by workplace bullying, whether they were the target or the witness (2). The nursing profession is no exception to this startling statistic. Both the American Nurses Association (ANA) and The Joint Commission (TJC) have addressed the need for a positive work environment that is â€Å"free of abusive behavior, such as bullying, hostility, abuse of authority, and reprisal for identifying abuse in the workplace† (8). Bullying in nursing is thought to begin during undergraduateRead MoreBullying in Nursing838 Words   |  3 PagesIn a profession where caring is the epicenter of the job, it is disconcerting to see a high occurrence of bullying in the nursing environment. Lateral bullying and lateral violence are terms used to describe bullying, uncivil behavior, disrespect, social devaluing, peer control and verbal, physical and emotional abuse occurring between nurses and or colleagues (Ceravolo et al., 2012). Abusive behaviors from a superior are considered vertical or hierarchal violence and are commonly seen when the superiorRead MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On The Workplace925 Words   |  4 PagesPressure / unwitting bullying – working to unlikely time scales as well as providing minimal supplies to finis h the given task. Corporate bullying – a business manhandle with an exemption, knowing the law is feeble and work business sector is delicate. Organizational bullying – a blend of force and harassing happens when an association battles to accustom to evolving markets, decreased salary, a decrease in financial plans, forced desires, and other acute compulsions. Institutional bullying – settled in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Origins Of The American Civil War Essay - 1950 Words

There has been much historical debate over the origins of The American Civil War, with some historians arguing that it was due to the rising Abolition Movement and others arguing that it was due to economic factors, such as the fundamental differences between the Northern and Southern economies. Many Historians tend to agree that although the war did not begin because of slavery, it influenced the events and outcome of the war itself, as the cause became one of emancipation. Historiography of the Civil War doesn’t describe the origins of the Civil War as being purely economic and frequently the view of the Civil War as ‘a crusade against the evil of slavery’ is rejected. Other factors to consider when examining the origins of the Civil War include political decisions such as The Missouri Compromise and public reactions to them, economic differences and the Abolition Movement. In my opinion, I think that race had the largest influence in causing The American Civil War due to the rise and influence of the Abolition Movement. In my opinion, the origin of The American Civil War was due to conflicts surrounding the issue of race and race relations. For example, The Abolition Movement caused a huge division between Northern and Southern states. slavery was not just an economic institution but also a domestic one, it was a key feature of the southern way of life and many abolitionists viewed this institution as being morally wrong. Abolitionist movements spread across America inShow MoreRelatedOrigins Of The American Civil War Essay1995 Words   |  8 Pageshistorical debate over the true origin of The American Civil War, with some historians arguing that it was due to the rising Abolition Movement and others arguing that it was due to economic factors, such as the fundamental differences between the Northern and Southern economies. Many Historians tend to agree that although the war did not begin because of Slavery, it influenced the events and the outcome of the war itself, as the cause became one of emanc ipation when many Americans thought the primary aimRead MoreDred Scott Decision : An Incorrect View Of The Judicial Role And Viewed As Morally Incorrect?1136 Words   |  5 Pagesexamined from an incorrect view of the judicial role and viewed as morally incorrect? Due to Chief Justice Taney’s unacceptable error of not reviewing the case through law, the decision led the nation split into two and eventually caused in American Civil War. In this investigation, Chief Justice Taney, who held the majority of votes, actions and behaviors prior of the case will be evaluated for its impact upon a simple freedom case. This investigation will also focus on three questions that JusticeRead MoreU.s. History And American History1634 Words   |  7 PagesHISTORY FINAL PAPER Throughout the history of the United States from the 1500’s to 1865 a number of enduring motifs played out that shaped the future of the country. This is the place in time where the origins of racist ideologies can be traced back to the introduction of slavery to the American agricultural system in order to justify its malicious immorality. The 1500’s also saw the infancy of the specialization of the different regional economies of America to capitalize on what was closely availableRead MoreThe Impact Of Westward Expansion On The United States1571 Words   |  7 Pageswould have the opposite effect. Jefferson’s fateful decision to expand the United States nearly destroyed the Republic that Americans worked so hard to build. It triggered the rise of divisions amongst Americans. These small cracks continued to grow and tear at the seams of the nation. Although westward expansion between 1800 and 1848 granted many new opportunities to the American people, it also brought about tension that plagued the nation for years to come. Some historians may construe westward expansionRead MoreMy Family s Foundation : Roll Your Own Paper 1st Draft907 Words   |  4 PagesBianca Hall Roll Your Own Paper 1st Draft History 10400-05 Professor Dan Buche Due: November 6, 2014 General Winfield Scott: Success, Free Soil, and an Indication of War My family’s foundation has always been rooted in knowing about our ancestry. From a very young age my mother always told me stories about my grandparents, great grandparents, and so on. About one year ago, at a family reunion, booklets were given to all of the patriarchs of the family; and inside held an abundance of informationRead MoreDebate on Civil War1069 Words   |  5 PagesAmerican Historians’ Debate on the Civil War The American Civil War has without a doubt left a permanent divide on this great nation’s past and present. American historians still debate the causes of a war that began in 1861 between the Union states and Confederacy states. The war can be seen as caused by the principle of slavery, the growing tension between northern and southern ideology or due to a crack in the political system of the time. United States’ history classes focus on teaching studentsRead MoreSlavery And The Civil War958 Words   |  4 Pageshead on collision course: the Civil War. Slavery and the Civil War are more intertwined than face value would ever suggest. For some, the major cause of the Civil War was about slavery, this should not be a shock to anyone, but sadly, it commonly is misinterpreted. According to an article by James Illingworth titled, â€Å"Slavery and the origins of the Civil War†, â€Å"One hundred fifty years after it began, the Civil War remains one of the most misunderstood episodes in American history. In a recent Pew pollRead MoreThe Battle Of Gettysburg And A Website Article From The New World Encyclopedia1320 Words   |  6 PagesGettysburg is seen today as the turning point of the war, and after the analysis of these historical documents its clear why the bloodshed at Gettysburg was as significant as it was being able to turn the tides of the war. Two sources that are going to be used in this are a website article from History.com: â€Å"Battle of Gettysburg† and a website article from the NeW World Encyclopedia: â €Å"Battle of gettysburg†. These sources will be analyzed by their origin, purpose, content, value and limitation in relationRead MorePhotography and the Civil War Essay1603 Words   |  7 Pagesdid Mathew Brady change people’s perception of the Civil War? This investigation evaluates the ways in which photographer Mathew Brady changed the American perception of the Civil War. The focus of the investigation is on the growth of photography during the Civil War, a small bit of background on Mathew Brady, and his involvement on the battlefield as a â€Å"battlefield photographer†. The technological advancements in photography during the Civil War are noted in this investigation. Also, connectionsRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1423 Words   |  6 PagesAfrican Americans were a very important addition to the American Civil War such as fighting and spying for both the north and the south sides. The American Civil War was a war fought in the Unit ed States between the North and South states. The war was from 1861-1865 and was because the South wanted to establish itself as a separate nation. The northern states were called the Union and the southern states were called the Confederate. Between the north and south states were the Border States, which

Piagets Four Stages of Learning in Cognitive Development...

Jean Piagets Four Stages of Learning in Cognitive Development Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who did work on the development of intelligence in children. His studies have had a major impact on the fields of psychology and education. Piaget liked to call himself a genetic epistemologist (is a person who studies the origins of human knowledge) His theories led to more advanced work in child psychology. Piaget does work involving both experimental and observational methods. Piaget believed that from birth humans are active learners, he also believed that cognitive development occurs in four stages. Stage I, sensorimotor intelligence (birth-2 years), takes the child from unrelated reflexive movements to behavior that reflects†¦show more content†¦His thinking is influenced by fantasy -- the way hed like things to be -- and he assumes that others see situations from his viewpoint. Stage III, concrete operational thought (7-11 years), involves relatively sophisticated problem-solving behavior and attainment of adult thought. Stage IV, formal operational thought (12 years and older), is characterized by the ability to develop hypotheses and deduce new concepts. Child psychologists are and always have been interested in the interaction of biological traits and environmental events that influence behavior and development. Research today involves things such as memory and attention span also they are trying to find out how you get from one level of thought to the next. Piaget asserted that for a child to know and construct knowledge of the world the child must act on objects and it is this action which provides knowledge of those objects, the mind organizes reality and acts upon it. Readiness approaches in developmental psychology emphasize that children cannot learn something until maturation gives them certain prerequisites. The ability to learn any cognitive content is always related to their stage of intellectual development. Children who are at a certain stage cannot be taught the concepts of a higher stage. Some children advance more quickly in the development of logical intelligence than do others, this is known as Piagetian Principals in the Classroom. The students shouldShow MoreRelatedEssay on Piagets Learning Theory in Elementary Education1549 Words   |  7 PagesPiaget’s Learning Theory in Elementary Education In order to support children’s growth educators try to provide a stimulating classroom environment. They implement different strategies, tools and practices to help achieve this goal. Since educators play an important role in children’s development they should be familiar with developmental psychology and know of its educational implications in the classroom. There are two major approaches of developmental psychology: (1) Cognitive development asRead MoreCognitvie Development1150 Words   |  5 PagesCognitive Development in Children Elteen Herman Sinte Gleska University PY 100 General Psychology Haelee Engel December 12, 2012 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Cognitive Development What is Cognitive Development? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Piaget’s Theory on Learning †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. How Cognitive learning can differ through cultures†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Cognitive Teaching Identifying children who may have a learning disability†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ What parents and teacherRead MoreCompare and contrast Piaget‚Äà ´s and Vygotsky‚Äà ´s theories of cognitive development in children1274 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Compare and contrast Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children. This essay will compare Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children. Also, show the differences between the two psychologist’s theories. Thus, by showing their similarities like in language and adaptation theories. Further, differences like Piaget’s theory on cognitive developmental stages and the schemas which are build to learn or accommodate new words or things. Vygostky’sRead MorePiaget s Impact On Education862 Words   |  4 Pagespsychology during the twentieth century. Piaget’s theory has impacted education and a focuses on developmentally appropriate education. Because of Piaget’s impact on education, curriculum, instruction and materials have been developed and are used by students in accordance with the student’s physical and cognitive abilities, along with their emotional and social needs (Ojose, 2008). Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development; b efore his work, it was assumed thatRead MoreDevelopmental Theory Essay1726 Words   |  7 PagesShortcomings Of Piaget’s Theory. This essay will be summarising the contributions and shortcomings of the Cognitive-Developmental theory and firstly explore the background and key concept’s of Piaget’s work behind child development. Secondly Piaget’s ideas about cognitive change and the four stages of development from birth which are the sensorimotor stage, the pre-operational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage and how this impacts development. Thirdly the mainRead MorePiaget’s Stage Theory in my eyes was four key stages of development marked by shifts in how they1000 Words   |  4 Pages Piaget’s Stage Theory in my eyes was four key stages of development marked by shifts in how they understand the world. To me Piaget’s theories had a major impact on the theory and practice of education. Her first theory was â€Å"A focus on the process of children’s thinking, not just its products. In addition to checking the correctness of children’s answers, teachers must understand the processes children use to get to the answer. Appropriate learning experiences build on children’s current levelRead MoreJean Piaget: Biography and Theory of Cognitive Development1601 Words   |  6 PagesPiagets Theory of Cognitive Development: Jean Piagets theory of cognitive development is a description of the four distinct stages of development of cognition in children. The theory was developed at a time when Piaget was employed at the Binet Institute in the 1920s in which his main responsibilities were to develop the French versions of questions on the English intelligence tests. During this period, Piaget became increasingly concerned or interested with the reasons children gave for theirRead MoreAlbert Bandura s Social Learning Theory1503 Words   |  7 PagesBandura’s Social Learning Theory with Piaget’s Cognitive Theory. compare and contrast Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory with Piaget’s Cognitive Theory. How applicable is the Social learning Theory to the Zambian Educational system. Both Albert Bandura and Jean Piaget were psychologists who contributed greatly in the field of psychology. This implies that there are some similarities and differences between Albert Bandura’s Social learning theories with Piaget’s cognitive theory. On the otherRead MoreJean Piaget s Theory And Theory1673 Words   |  7 Pagesdesigned to explain development. These are essential for developing predictions about behaviors and predictions result in research that helps to support or clarify the theory. The theorist I am choosing to talk about is Jean Piaget who discovered the cognitive development theory and who broke it down into different stages. The different stages are the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational thought, and the formal operational thought. To sum up Piaget’s theory he believesRead MorePiagets Theory of Cognitive Development Essays1715 Words   |  7 Pagesa lifelong interest in how individuals, especially chi ldren, use cognitive development to adapt to the world around them. Piaget published his first paper by the age of 10, completed his bachelor’s degree by the age of 18, and at the age of 22 received his PhD from the University of Neuchatel. Piaget spent many years of his life researching the developmental and cognitive knowledge of children. The Theory of Cognitive Development places focus on human intelligence and developmental thinking. â€Å"Influenced

Theoretical Analysis Community in the 21st century Free Sample

Question: Theoretical Analysis Community in the 21st Century. Answer: Community Work (Social Work) Bernick and Cervero argue that people who share similar customs, beliefs, cherish the same values, and religion forms a community. At times the people in a community live in one place. It implies that they share the same geographical location. There are various connections between the people that tie them together thus impacting the sense of togetherness in them. The relations between the people are responsible for keeping them glued to each other. Social ties compliment the feeling of belonging to a group of individuals who belong to a given community. The relationships are vital in the practices that take place in each social setting. Even though most communities are associated with small groups of people, others are affiliated by large masses of individuals. They include the international communities and the national communities. Bernick and Cervero propose that community works have been in existence for many years. They are the work done to benefit humanity at a free charge. They are done by groups of people or associations that do not seek profits from their work. The work being done by these unique groups have led to developments in the community. The activities done by the social groups are many. They include counselling, advocacy, information production and distribution among others. The groups involved in social work include non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, and community organizations, incorporated and unincorporated organizations among others. On the other hand, community development is the state in which the members of a community join hands to perform a similar task (Innes, J.E. and Booher, 2004, p.420). The actions taken are usually meant to bring about solutions to the challenges facing the community. In the twenty-first century, community development is perceived as the gl obal network formed by scholars and other practitioners in various fields which seek to promote sustainable development, justice among the people, opportunities in the economic sector and the rights of every human being. There are different ways in which the social and the technological changes have shaped community development. Bernick and Cervero, are for the idea that the social changes have impacted different fields in the lives of people across the world. The change has touched areas such as globalization, poverty levels, inequality, women issues, diversity in cultures, and the rights of the people. Community practices are managed by organizers in the communities, program developers, and the leaders in the community, researchers and the policy makers of the land (Innes, J.E. and Booher, 2004, p.425). Social development has enhanced families acquire skills to sustain themselves. Networks have been formed to increase individual capacities as well as those of different organizations. One of the ways through which social change has influenced the community is through populations. The distribution of the population has occurred for many years. In the 21st century, the developing countries have become the nations with the largest shares of the world's people. Dale and Hill argue that the patterns of the work being done by men and women have been altered hence in most countries across the world the gender does not dictate the action to be executed. The population is determined to make the countries economically stable. It implies that both sexes contribute largely to the social change. The variations in the social relations among people have changed the concepts of community. The forms of relationships among people influence how they behave towards each other. The interactions control the actions taken by the people. Social behaviours dictate people`s social lives because they perform every action with a goal. The objectives suggest that a community has the aims that it wishes to achieve in a given period. Technological changes have influenced the concept of community in many ways. Bulmer suggests that the community is viewed as an avenue where information can be collected easily. The advancement in the mechanization of producing improvised gadgets that gather information has made people seek for data using modern products and devices. Using mobile phones has posed a threat to the communities as people are being disconnected from their communities. The members of the community see the changes in technology as a positive way of developing the economy. Communities have advocated for the use of modern means of production because they tend to improve the quality of life (Campbell, 2014, p.48). The leadership of many countries has become easy to monitor using the advanced technology. It is because the governments are applying the technology to in implementing some services to the people. On the other hand, some people in the communities have found out that the use of the modern technology has led to increased unemployment, destruction of the environment and disruptions of families (Carlsson and Nilsson, 2016, p.1118). Studies made have proven that the old and the young in the communities agree that modern technology creates problems in the societies. It is because people spend less time with their family members. Surveys propose that teenagers are more involved on their devices such as mobile phones, laptops, and video games. According to Stein, the old generation of people does not agree that technology has helped much in the communities. For instance, the old view using phones to communicate less efficient to applying the face-to-face method. They suggest that using phones is just like hiding behind a phone. The Heartland Monitor poll suggests that the attitudes of people regarding the issue of modern technology as negative. It is because the use of digital computing and communications has made people glued to their devices. This has interfered with how people socialize. The situation has reshaped the community life since community practices have been impacted. The forms of community practice incorporate community organizing, social planning, management of the human work, developments in the community among others. In the current times, community practices are based on economic developments, urban planning and public relations among the people. Different forms of religions have been crafted to suit the needs of individuals in the communities (Laurence and Bentley, 2016, p.55). All the religions differ in the values they uphold and have changed compared to the traditional religions that were there in the past. People have embraced new rights compared to the customs that were present in the old times. Communities have come up with strategies to manage disasters and problems whenever they occur (Campbell, 2014, p.56). For instance, in Japan, there are community-based disaster management systems that have formulated to combat problems that arise in the country. The idea was implemented because there have been many cases of the natural disaster facing the country. CBDM has managed to deal with floods, fires, droughts; building collapses among other tragedies that have been witnesses in the country. The new method was from the village system of the old Japan. The process and the mechanisms of the community-based disaster management apply new techniques. All the problems being handled by the emergency management improve the social policy. Rochester, Paine, Howlett, Zimmeck and Paine (2016) argue that various fields of policy within governments in providing social services to the citizens have been enhanced to promote the development of the social status. The quality of lives among the people is improved through using the stipulated guidelines and the activities that influence human welfare. The School of Economics in London recognizes social policy as a discipline that analyses societies and the social needs of the people in a given community. Nowadays social policy is perceived as a study and not a discipline by most scholars. It is because it has evolved with time. In the olden days, social policy was based on the aims and goals behind it. For instance, for one to minimize the levels of poverty one had to provide avenues for self-development Economic growth was also a target that could reduce poverty. Mandell, N. and Johnson suggest that the social security systems were grouped using their models of intervention. The systems focus their attention towards universal principles. Countries such as Sweden focus its attention towards assisting the poor in the society. The needs met by the social policy include education, health care services, housing, and security in the economic sector of the people. The social well-being in the system covers the entire well-being of the population in a given country as well as eradicating poverty (Honig, Lampel, Siegel and Drnevich, 2017, p.86). In the U.S, the religious and the scientific ideas have influenced social policy. The government has invested in creating jobs for the people to promote the economy by using different projects. Various Acts in the constitution caters for the every child to receive an education. An example is the No Child left Behind Act that was proposed a president as an education plan that would promote education for all. It is a program that ensures that each child gets the necessary skills needed for sustainability. The policies have led to people conducting research to establish how social and technological changes have shaped the community. Researchers have been employed in different fields such as science, especially in medicine. It is because the members of the communities require information that they can rely on to make sound decisions. The methods used by researchers are based on different projects that have specific aims and agendas (Honig, Lampel, Siegel and Drnevich, 2017, p.89). The studies are meant for diagnosing conditions in a community, executing a given prescription on a challenge facing a community or assessing the impact of the implementation of the order. Research is conducted using different stages for it to bear positive results. Each stage plays a vital role in establishing the solution to a problem challenging the community. The outcome of the study relies on the reliability and the validity of the information gathered by the one performing the research. The Community service workers and the professional personnel involved in conducting research come with guides to implementing the changes they recommend to the communities (Honig, Lampel, Siegel and Drnevich, 2017, p.82). Scholars, community development staff, and the activists find research to be more efficient. It is because research provides better mechanisms to apply in dealing with problems facing the society. Project based research improves the democracy of a group of people by issuing ways through which people can share duties and power. Community workers always aspire to make a difference whenever they perform research. Political decisions are influenced by the changes in the community. Joined people advocate for particular issues and decisions. The knowledge in the social changes is focused on the policies of the government as well as the laws passed by the legislature. Taylor suggests that variations in the community have made people take up the responsibility of leading others in the governments. The issue of representation has been debated for many years in most nations around the world. The people representing others are making advancements in the way community work is conducted in the countries. They are doing so through the formation of laws and policies that govern the way services are provided to the people. Gilchrist, and Taylor argue that lobbying involves the person who makes decisions on political grounds and the decisions that a community or an individual is concerned about every day. Lobbying targets right decision making in people. Nowadays, some policies stipulate the direction whic h lobbying is done. Disability issues must be catered for when lobbying is being done. Various factors have shaped and reshaped the concept of community. Climate is one of the factors that have shaped the idea of community. The change in the climate has made people devise ways of dealing with the adverse conditions in the world. Green and Haines argues that the change in the values of the citizens has compelled them to make drastic shifts in the way they behave. The technology has fostered community developments. Advanced levels of technology have made people more productive in many aspects. Education systems are also responsible for shaping the community. The application of formal education has empowered people`s abilities to come up with better methods of doing things (Laurence and Bentley, 2016, p.61). Simpler techniques that have made the world a better place to live in have been created by using modern tools and equipment. Community work has become an avenue where people`s lives n are made better by incorporating new ways of detecting community problems. Freedom and justice among individuals have resulted in people to enjoying different standards of living. Involvement in Democratic leadership and being respected by others influence how people carry themselves in the community. The emotions of citizens in a given community dictate their behavior thus defines how a community should be perceived. References Bernick, M. and Cervero, R., 1997. Transit villages in the 21st century. Bulmer, M., 2015. The Social Basis of Community Care (Routledge Revivals). Routledge. Campbell, C., 2014. Community mobilisation in the 21st century: Updating our theory of social change?. Journal of Health Psychology, 19(1), pp.46-59. Carlsson, E. and Nilsson, B., 2016. Technologies of participation: Community news and social media in Northern Sweden. Journalism, 17(8), pp.1113-1128. Crow, G. and Allan, G., 2014. Community life. Routledge. Dale, A. and Hill, S.B., 2001. At the edge: Sustainable development in the 21st century (Vol. 6). UBC Press. Gilchrist, A. and Taylor, M., 2016. The short guide to community development. Policy Press. Green, G.P. and Haines, A., 2015. Asset building community development. Sage publications. Honig, B., Lampel, J., Siegel, D. and Drnevich, P., 2017. Special Section On Ethics in Management Research: Norms, Identity, and Community in the 21st Century. Academy of Management Learning Education, 16(1), pp.84-93. Innes, J.E. and Booher, D.E., 2004. Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century. Planning theory practice, 5(4), pp.419-436. Laurence, J. and Bentley, L., 2016. Does ethnic diversity have a negative effect on attitudes towards the community? A longitudinal analysis of the causal claims within the ethnic diversity and social cohesion debate. European Sociological Review, 32(1), pp.54-67. Mandell, N. and Johnson, J.L., 2016. RACE, CLASS, AND SExUALITY. Rochester, C., Paine, A.E., Howlett, S., Zimmeck, M. and Paine, A.E., 2016. Volunteering and Society in the 21st Century. Springer. Stein, M.R., 2015. The eclipse of community: An interpretation of American studies. Princeton University Press. Taylor, D.C. and Taylor, C.E., 2016. Just and lasting change: When communities own their futures. JHU Press. Wilken, R., 2014. Teletechnologies, place, and community. Routledge.

The Biography of Socrates Essay Example For Students

The Biography of Socrates Essay The most interesting and influential philosopher of all time was Socrates, whose dedication to careful reasoning transformed the entire history of philosophy. Since he sought genuine knowledge rather than mere victory over an opponent, he familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the Lonian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athens. Socrates employed the same logical tricks developed by the Sophists to a new purpose, the pursuit of truth. Thus, his willingness to call everything into question and his determination to accept nothing less than an adequate account of the nature of things make him the first clear exponent of critical philosophy. Although he was well known during his own time for his conversational skills and public teaching, Socrates wrote nothing, so we are dependent upon his students, like Kenophon and Plato, for any detailed knowledge of his methods and results. Plato was also a philosopher who often injected his own theories into the dialogues he presented to the world as discussions between Socrates and other famous figures of the day. Nevertheless, it is usually assumed that at least the early dialogues of Plato provide a fairly accurate representation of Socrates himself. Socrates profoundly affected Western philosophy through his influence on Plato. Born in Athens in 469 BC to the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and Phaenarete, a midwife, Socrates received the regular elementary education in literature, music, and other areas of the arts. Initially, Socrates followed the craft of his father; according to a former tradition, he executed a statue group of the three Graces, which stood at the entrance to the Acropolis until the 2nd century AD. In the Peloponnesian War with Sparta he served as an infantryman with conspicuous bravery at the battles of Potidaea in 432-430BC, Delium in 424BC, and Amphipolis in 422BC. Socrates believed in the superiority of argument over writing and therefore spent the greater part of his adult life in the marketplace and public places of Athens, engaging in dialogue and argument with anyone who would listen or who would submit to interrogation. Even though Socrates was unattractive and short in stature he was extremely hardy and self-controlled. He enjoyed life immensely and achieved social popularity because of his ready wit and a keen sense of humor that was completely devoid of satire or cynicism. Socrates attitude toward politics was obedient, but generally steered clear of politics, restrained by what he believed to be divine warning. He believed that he had received a call to pursue philosophy and could serve his country best by devoting himself to teaching, and by persuading the Athenians to engage in self-examination and in tending to their souls. He didnt write any books and established no regular school of philosophy. All that is known, with certainty about his personality and his way of thinking is derived from the works of two of his distinguished scholars: Plato and the historian Xenophon, a prosaic writer who probably failed to understand many of Socrates doctrines. Plato portrayed Socrates as hiding behind an ironical profession of ignorance, known as Socratic irony, and possessing a mental acuity and resourcefulness that enabled him to penetrate arguments with great facility. Socrates contribution to philosophy was essentially ethical in character. Belief in a purely objective understanding of such concepts as justice, love, and virtue, and the self-knowledge that he inculcated, were the basis of his teachings. He believed that all vice is the result of ignorance, and that no person is willingly bad; correspondingly, virtue is knowledge, and those who know the right will act rightly. His logic placed particular emphasis on rational argument and the quest for general definitions, as evidenced in the writings of his younger contemporary and pupil, Plato, and of Platos pupil, Aristotle. .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d , .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .postImageUrl , .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d , .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d:hover , .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d:visited , .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d:active { border:0!important; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d:active , .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8b34e985d92958e1df55460a88a8a77d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: About Love Summary Essay Another thinker befriended and influenced by Socrates was Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school of philosophy. Socrates was also the teacher of Aristippus, who founded the Cyrenaic philosophy of experience and pleasure, from which developed the more lofty philosophy of Epicures. To such Stoics as the Greek philosopher Epictetus, the Roman philosopher Seneca the Elder, and the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, Socrates appeared as the very embodiment and guide of the higher life. Although a patriot and a man of deep religious conviction, Socrates was nonetheless regarded with suspicion by many of his contemporaries, who disliked his attitude tow ard the Athenian state and the established religion. He was charged in 399BC with neglecting the gods of the state and introducing new divinities, a reference to the daemonion, or mystical inner voice, to which Socrates often referred. He was also charged with corrupting the morals of the young,, leading them away from the principles of democracy; and he was wrongly identified with the Sophists,. This was possibly because he had been ridiculed by the comic poet Aristophanes in his play The Clouds as the master of a thinking-shop where young men were taught to make the worse reason appear the better reason. Platos Apology gives the substance of the defense made by Socrates at his trial; it was a bold vindication of his whole life. He was condemned to die even though only a small majority carried the vote. When, according to Athenian legal practice, Socrates made an ironic counter-proposition to the courts death sentence, proposing only to pay a small fine because of his value to the state as a man with a philosophic mission, the jury was so angered by this offer that it voted by an increased majority for the death penalty. Socrates friends planned his escape from prison, but he preferred to comply with the law and die for his cause. His last day was spent with his friends and admirers, and in the evening he calmly fulfilled his sentence by drinking a cup of hemlock according to a customary procedure of execution. Plato described the trial and death of Socrates in the Apology, the Crito, and the Phaedo. The Examined Life Because of his political associations with an earlier regime, the Athenian democracy put Socrates on trial, charging him with undermining state religion and corrupting young people. The speech he offered in his own defense, as reported in Platos (Apology), provides us with many reminders of the central features of Socrates approach to philosophy and its relation to practical life. Explaining his mission as a philosopher, Socrates reports an oracular message telling him No one is wiser than you. (Apology 21a) He then proceeds through a series of ironic descriptions of his efforts to disprove the oracle by conversing with notable Athenians who must surely be wiser. In each case, in each case, however, Socrates concludes that he has a kind of wisdom that each of them lacks, namely, an open awareness of his own ignorance. The goal of Socratic interrogation, then, is to help individuals to achieve genuine self-knowledge, even if it often turns out to be negative in character. As his cross-examination of Meletus shows, Socrates means to turn the methods of the Sophists inside out, using logical nit picking to expose (rather than to create) illusions about reality. If the method rarely succeeds with interlocutors, it can nevertheless be effectively internalized as a dialectical mode of reasoning in an effort to understand everything. Even after the jury has convicted him, Socrates declines to abandon his pursuit of the truth in all matters. Refusing to accept exile from Athens or a commitment to silence as his penalty, he maintains that public discussion of the great issues of life and virtue is a necessary part of any valuable human life. The unexamined life is not worth living. .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d , .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .postImageUrl , .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d , .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d:hover , .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d:visited , .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d:active { border:0!important; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d:active , .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u0d38060b53c2148b9e6bf80a81f6001d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Iona Moon Essay (Apology 38a) Socrates would rather die than give up philosophy, and the jury seems happy to grant him that wish. Even when the jury has sentenced him to death, Socrates calmly delivers his final public words, a speculation about what the future holds. Disclaiming any certainty about the fate of a human being after death, he nevertheless expresses a continued confidence in the power of reason, which he has exhibited (while the jury has not). Who really wins will remain unclear. Platos dramatic picture of a man willing to face death rather than abandoning his commitment to philosophical inquiry offers up Socrates as a model for all future philosophers. Perhaps few of us are presented with the same stark choice between philosophy and death, but all of us are daily faced with opportunities to decide between convenient conventionality and our devotion to truth and reason. How we choose determines whether we, like Socrates, deserve to call our lives philosophical.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Personality Essay Example

Personality Essay While there are many different theories of personality, the first step is to understand exactly what is meant by the term personality. The word personality itself stems from the Latin word persona, which referred to a theatrical mask work by performers in order to either project different roles or disguise their identities. A brief definition would be that personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. Some other definitions of personality: Personality refers to individuals characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms hidden or not behind those patterns. This definition means that among their colleagues in other subfields of psychology, those psychologists who study personality have a unique mandate: to explain whole persons. (Funder, D. C. , 1 997) †¢ Although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a persons behavior. (Feist and Feist, 2009) While there are many different theories of personality, the first step is to understand exactly what is meant by the term personality. The word personality itself stems from the Latin word persona, which referred to a theatrical mask work by performers in order to either project different roles or disguise their identities. A brief definition would be that personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. Some other definitions of personality: †¢ Personality refers to individuals characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms hidden or not behind those patterns. This definition means that among their colleagues in other subfields of psychology, those psychologists who study personality have a unique mandate: to explain whole persons. (Funder, D. C. , 1997) Although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a persons behavior. (Feist and Feist, 2009) These personality types are †¢ Sanguine †¢ Phlegmatic †¢ Choleric †¢ Melancholic Long ago, each of these types was associated with a dominant humor present in the body: sanguin e – blood humor, phlegmatic – phlegm humor, choleric – yellow bile humor, melancholic – black bile humor. We will write a custom essay sample on Personality specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Personality specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Personality specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Additionally to that, the latest research shows that these four basic temperaments are associated with chemicals, like dopamine (for sanguine type), estrogen (for phlegmatic type), testosterone (for choleric type) and serotonin (for melancholic type). The Sanguine Type This type is characterized by spontaneity, optimism, enthusiasm, high energy, mental flexibility, novelty seeking, impulsiveness and curiosity. These traits are associated with specific genes in the dopamine system. These people often have very expressive faces and love using words like â€Å"adventure†, â€Å"energy†, â€Å"new†, â€Å"fun†, â€Å"active†, â€Å"travel† and similar. The Phlegmatic Type These people are mainly defined by their social skills, such as their ability to express themselves and read other people face expressions and body language. They do well at connecting facts and seeing â€Å"the big picture†. They are nurturing, sympathetic, agreeable and emotionally expressive. Some of these character traits are linked with estrogen that is present in both men and women. Physically you can recognize them by their smooth skin, full lips, round faces and small noses. Their favorite words are â€Å"passion†, â€Å"passionate†, â€Å"sensitive† and â€Å"sweet†. The Choleric Type This type is associated with testosterone, which is also present in men and women, but more so in men. These people are direct, focused, tough, analytical, logical and strategic. They have a great deal of courage and like to compete, often against each other. They often have square jaws, high cheekbones and high foreheads and love to use words like â€Å"intellect†, â€Å"ambition† and â€Å"challenge†. More  » The Melancholic Type Melancholics tend to be calm, loyal and orderly, just as their personality name sounds. They are cautious and conventional. These men and women inherited genes in the serotonin system and their favorite words are â€Å"family†, â€Å"loyal†, â€Å"respect†, â€Å"caring†, â€Å"values† and â€Å"moral†. Thorndikes theory of learning 1. Learning is incremental. [9] 2. Learning occurs automatically. [9] 3. All animals learn the same way. [9] 4. Law of effect- if an association is followed by a â€Å"satisfying state of affairs† it will be strengthened and if it is followed by an â€Å"annoying state of affairs â€Å" it will be weakened. 5. Thorndike’s law of exercise has two parts; the law of use and the law of disuse. . Law of use- the more often an association is used the stronger it becomes. [15] 2. Law of disuse- the longer an association is unused the weaker it becomes. [15] 6. Law of recency- the most recent response is most likely to reoccur. [15] 7. Multiple response- problem solving through trial and error. An animal will try multiple respo nses if the first response does not lead to a specific state of affairs. [15] 8. Set or attitude- animals are predisposed to act in a specific way. [15] 9. Prepotency of elements- a subject can filter out irrelevant aspects of a problem and focus and respond only to significant elements of a problem. [15] 10. Response by analogy- responses from a related or similar context may be used in a new context. [15] 11. Identical elements theory of transfer- This theory states that the extent to which information learned in one situation will transfer to another situation is determined by the similarity between the two situations. [9] The more similar the situations are, the greater the amount of information that will transfer. 9] Similarly, if the situations have nothing in common, information learned in one situation will not be of any value in the other situation. [9] 12. Associative shifting- it is possible to shift any response from occurring with one stimulus to occurring with another stimulus. [15] Associative shift maintains that a response is first made to situation A, then to AB, and then finally to B, thus shifting a response from one condition to another by associating it with that condition. [16] 13. Law of readiness- a quality in responses and connections that results in readiness to act. 16] Thorndike acknowledges that responses may differ in their readiness. [16] He claims that eating has a higher degree of readiness than vomiting, that weariness detracts from the readiness to play and increases the readiness to sleep. [16] Also, Thorndike argues that a low or negative status in respect to readiness is called unreadiness. [16] Behavior and learning are influenced by the readiness or unreadiness of responses, as well as by their strength. [16] 14. Identifiability- According to Thorndike, the identification or placement of a situation is a first response of the nervous system, which can recognize it. 16] Then connections may be made to one another or to another response, and these connections depend upon the original identification. [16] Therefore, a large amount of learning is made up of changes in the ident ifiability of situations. [16] Thorndike also believed that analysis might turn situations into compounds of features, such as the number of sides on a shape, to help the mind grasp and retain the situation, and increase their identifiability. [16] 15. Availability- The ease of getting a specific response. 16] For example, it would be easier for a person to learn to touch their nose or mouth than it would be for them to draw a line 5  inches long with their eyes closed. [16] Development of law of effect Thorndikes research focused on instrumental learning, which means that learning is developed from the organism doing something. For example, he placed a cat inside a wooden box. The cats used various methods trying to get out, however it does not work until it hits the lever. Afterwards, Thorndike tried placing the cat inside the wooden box again, this time, the cat is able to hit the lever quickly and succeeded to get out from the box. At first, Thorndike emphasized the importance of dissatisfaction stemming from failure as equal to the reward of satisfaction with success, though in his experiments and trials on humans he came to conclude that reward is a much more effective motivator than punishment. He also emphasized that the satisfaction must come immediately after the success, or the lesson would not sink in. [ Transfer of learning is the study of the dependency of human conduct, learning, or performance on prior experience. The notion was originally introduced as transfer of practice by Edward Thorndike and Robert S. Woodworth. [1] They explored how individuals would transfer learning in one context to another context that shared similar characteristics  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ or more formally how improvement in one mental function could influence another related one. Their theory implied that transfer of learning depends on the proportion to which the learning task and the transfer task are similar, or where identical elements are concerned in the influencing and influenced function, now known as identical element theory. Transfer research has since attracted much attention in numerous domains, producing a wealth of empirical findings and theoretical interpretations. However, there remains considerable controversy about how transfer of learning should be conceptualized and explained, what its probability occurrence is, what its relation is to learning in general, or whether it may be said to exist at all. 2] Most discussions of transfer to date can be developed from a common operational definition, describing it as the process and the effective extent to which past experiences (also referred to as the transfer source) affect learning and performance in a current novel situation (the transfer target). [3] This, however, is usually where the general consensus between various research approaches ends. There are a wide variety of viewpoints and theoretical frameworks apparent in the literature. For review purposes, these are categorized as follows: †¢ a taxonomical pproach to transfer research that u sually intends to categorize transfer into different types; †¢ an application domain-driven approach by focusing on developments and contributions of different disciplines that have traditionally been interested in transfer; †¢ the examination of the psychological scope of transfer models with respect to the psychological functions or faculties that are being regarded; and †¢ a concept-driven evaluation, which reveals underlying relationships and differences between theoretical and empirical traditions. Do we really forget? Many people think that the human mind is too complex to explain, and memory is no exception. Even though vast amounts of research have been carried out into how we remember (and forget! ) things, nobody knows for sure the model on which human memory is based. There are, nonetheless, two main reasons for which psychologists think we forget information: †¢ You store information in your memory but are unable to remember it when you need to, but perhaps can at a later date. In this case, information is inaccessible †¢ The human memory simply forgets information, permenantly, and the physical traces of the memory disappear. In which case, information is unavailable †¢ Forgetting †¢ You can’t talk about remembering without mentioning its counterpart. It seems that as much as we do remember, we forget even more. Forgetting isn’t really all that bad, and is in actuality, a pretty natural phenomenon. Imagine if you remembered every minute detail of every minute or every hour, of every day during your entire life, no matter how good, bad, or insignificant. Now imagine trying to sift through it all for the important stuff like where you left your keys. †¢ There are many reasons we forget things and often these reasons overlap. Like in the example above, some information never makes it to LTM. Other times, the information gets there, but is lost before it can attach itself to our LTM. Other reasons include decay, which means that information that is not used for an extended period of time decays or fades away over time. It is possible that we are physiologically preprogrammed to eventually erase data that no longer appears pertinent to us. Failing to remember something doesn’t mean the information is gone forever though. Sometimes the information is there but for various reasons we can’t access it. This could be caused by distractions going on around us or possibly due to an error of association (e. g. , believing something about the data which is not correct causing you to attempt to retrieve information that is not t here). There is also the phenomenon of repression, which means that we purposefully (albeit subconsciously) push a memory out of reach because we do not want to remember the associated feelings. This is often sited in cases where adults ‘forget’ incidences of sexual abuse when they were children. And finally, amnesia, which can be psychological or physiological in origin Memory Human memory, like memory in a computer, allows us to store information for later use. In order to do this, however, both the computer and we need to master three processes involved in memory. The first is called encoding; the process we use to transform information so that it can be stores. For a computer this means transferring data into 1’s and 0’s. For us, it means transforming the data into a meaningful form such as an association with an existing memory, an image, or a sound. Next is the actual storage, which simply means holding onto the information. For this to take place, the computer must physically write the 1’ and 0’s onto the hard drive. It is very similar for us because it means that a physiological change must occur for the memory to be stored. The final process is called retrieval, which is bringing the memory out of storage and reversing the process of encoding. In other words, return the information to a form similar to what we stored. The major difference between humans and computers in terms of memory has to do with how the information is stored. For the most part, computers have only two types; permanent storage and permanent deletion. Humans, on the other hand are more complex in that we have three distinct memory storage capabilities (not including permanent deletion). The first is   Sensory memory, referring to the information we receive through the senses. This memory is very brief lasting only as much as a few seconds.